Climate change is one of the most challenging global issues that humankind faces. The earth average surface temperature has risen more than 1 degree since the pre-industrial time and 2023 was the warmest year since 1880, year when modern measurement records began. The basic chemistry and physics of climate change have been understood for more than a century and effects already well documented. Science and research have significantly improved our understanding of the causes and our response options: human activities are estimated to have caused the temperature increase since pre-industrial time and global warming is projected to increase if substantial and sustained actions to reduce the human impact are not taken soon. Exploring the pivotal role of science in shaping international and European climate change policy, we delve into the dynamic interplay between scientific advancements and policy decisions as the scientific community’s influence is undeniable, driving evidence-based strategies that navigate the complex challenges of climate change.